Prospect union members at Dundee airport want their pay to be harmonised with workers at other Highlands and Islands Airports (HIAL), claiming they are not paid as much.
The union sent out 31 ballot papers outlining two options - industrial action and action short of a strike. Thirty members, who include fire-fighters, air traffic control and aircraft fuelling staff, voted in favour of both options.
A meeting will be held on Wednesday to decide whether the workers will strike or work to rule.
Prospect national secretary Alan Denney said: "The company has been informed of the ballot result and Prospect will be consulting with members on Wednesday April 18 to determine what kind of industrial action members will take and when."
HIAL operates and manages 11 airports, including Dundee, Inverness, Islay and Stornoway. Inglis Lyon, managing director of HIAL, said: "We have worked for many months with Prospect to avert industrial action and we are disappointed with this decision.
"It is particularly ill-timed given the serious challenges facing Dundee airport, not least the continuing decline in passenger traffic. This decision will inconvenience passengers and undermine airline confidence in Dundee.
"It has proved impossible to meet the union's expectations, particularly as the cost of harmonising staff terms and conditions would be in the region of £700,000 per annum. As a taxpayer-funded organisation, and at a time of decreasing airport revenues and increasing operational costs, this is not a cost that Dundee airport or HIAL can afford to bear, nor is it one the public should expect to bear."
He added: "We remain absolutely committed to Dundee airport. We have invested heavily to improve facilities at the airport and continue to work closely with our airline partners, the business community and the tourism industry to promote Dundee as a business and leisure destination.